Module 11 - Expressions of Result

Expressions of Result | Result Clauses |

Expressions of Result

In English, an expression of result tells us the result of the action of the main verb. Below are some basic examples and variations of expression of result (the expression of result is bolded):

Notice that the first two examples include the signal adverb “so”. Words like “so”, “so much”, “such”, and “such great” often indicate the presence of a result clause in a sentence.

Result Clauses

The most common way to express result in Latin is through a result clause. Result clauses are dependent clauses (i.e. they generally follow an independent clause) that have three key features:

In addition to these three key features, a result clause will be sometimes be preceded by an independent clause that features an adjective or adverb of degree such as tam (“so”), tantus (“such great, so much”), tālis (“such”), ita (“so”), sic (“thus”), adeō (“to such an extent”), ūsque.

How do we translate a sentence containing a result clause? Take the following example:

First, we break the sentence into dependent (bolded) and independent clauses (italicized). In the case of a sentence containing a purpose clause, we can recognize the dependent clause rather easily as it begins with ut.

We then translate the independent clause (notice the use of tantā in the independent clause):

After that, we select the appropriate translation for the result clause based on the nature of its subject. If the subject of the result clause is the same as the subject of the independent clause, we can simply translate the ut plus the verb as “to verb” or “so as to verb”. For example:

If the subject of the result clause is different from that of the independent clause, we translate ut plus the verb as “so that [subject] verb[ed]” (with the tense of the verb depending on whether you’re in primary or secondary sequence). This is the case with the example that we looked at above:

In primary sequence, the sentence and translation might look something like this:

Practice Opportunities

Find the result clause and then translate the sentence.

  1. Tantis laudibus honorata est ut Apollinem in certamen provocaret.

  2. Haec tantam vim veneni habuit ut afflatu homines necaret.

  3. Flumen ita increvit ut nullus homo id transire posset.

  4. Multa falsa rumor addebat ut paene bellum perfectum esse videretur.