Module 15 - Proviso Clauses

Proviso Clauses |

Clauses of Proviso

If the action of the independent clause happens only under the particular circumstances described by the dependent clause, the dependent clause is referred to a clause of proviso. There are a number of words that can introduce clauses of proviso (dum, dummodo, modo), which usually are translated as “if only”, “only”, or “provided that.” The clause of proviso always features a subjunctive verb in either the present or imperfect subjunctive. Clauses of proviso are negated by ne.

Below are some examples of proviso clauses (subjunctive verbs in the proviso clauses are bolded):

Practice Opportunities

Identify the type(s) of subordinate clause in the following sentences and, then, translate.

  1. Cum Agamemnon et Menelaus, Atrei filii, ad Troiam oppugnandam duces ducerent, in insulam Ithacam ad Ulixem, Laertis filium, venerunt.

  2. Tempestas eos ira Dianae retinebat, quod Agamemnon in venando cervam eius violavit.

  3. Tunc Clytaemnestra cum Aegistho, filio Thyestis, cepit consilium ut Agamemnonem et Cassandram interficeret.

  4. Dummodo Latinam linguam legat, magna poeta erit.