If the action of the independent clause happens only under the particular circumstances described by the dependent clause, the dependent clause is referred to a clause of proviso. There are a number of words that can introduce clauses of proviso (dum, dummodo, modo), which usually are translated as “if only”, “only”, or “provided that.” The clause of proviso always features a subjunctive verb in either the present or imperfect subjunctive. Clauses of proviso are negated by ne.
Below are some examples of proviso clauses (subjunctive verbs in the proviso clauses are bolded):
Dum metuant, oderint. (So long as they are scared, let them be hateful)
Magnō timore mē liberabis, dummodo inter me atque te murus intersit. (You will free me from great fear, so long as there is a wall between me and you).
Erimus felices, modo ne discedas. (We will be happy, provided that you do not leave.)
Identify the type(s) of subordinate clause in the following sentences and, then, translate.
Cum Agamemnon et Menelaus, Atrei filii, ad Troiam oppugnandam duces ducerent, in insulam Ithacam ad Ulixem, Laertis filium, venerunt. “circumstantial cum clause; When Agamenon and Menelaus were leading the (other) leader to besiege Troy, they came to the island of Ithaca to Ulysses, the son of Laertes.”
Tempestas eos ira Dianae retinebat, quod Agamemnon in venando cervam eius violavit. “causal clause (from point of view of author) with quod; A storm was retaining them on account of the wrath of Diana because Agamemnon harmed her deer in a hunt.”
Tunc Clytaemnestra cum Aegistho, filio Thyestis, cepit consilium ut Agamemnonem et Cassandram interficeret. “purpose clause with ut; Then Clytaemnestra took up a plan with Aegisthus, the son of Thyestes, to kill Agamenon and Cassandra.”
Dummodo Latinam linguam legat, magna poeta erit. “proviso clause with dummodo; Provided that she reads the Latin language, she will be a great poet.”