Concessive clauses are dependent clauses that indicate that the action of the dependent clause happens despite circumstances that appear to hinder it. There are a number of words that can introduce concessive clauses (quamvis, licet, quamquam, cum), which usually are translated as “although”, “even thought”, or “and yet.” Additionally, there are certain words that appear in the independent clause, such as tamen (“nevertheless”), that indicate that its action are at odds with the circumstances of the dependent clause These clauses can take either the indicative or the subjunctive.
Quamquam (although) always takes the indicative and introduces an admitted fact.
Quamvis (although, lit. as much as you wish) always takes the subjunctive.
Licet (although, lit. it is granted) is used with the present or perfect subjunctive.
Cum clauses that feature a subjunctive verb can indicate concession. In these cases, we translate cum as “although.” Frequently
Note in the sentence above, it would not make any sense if you translate it anything other than “although.”
Once again, if there is a concessive clause in indirect statement, the concessive clause will always have a subjunctive verb.
Find the concessive clause and then translate the sentence.
Quamquam Romani fessi erant, tamen hostes oppugnaverunt. “quamquam Romani fessi erant; Although the Romans were tired, they nevertheless attacked the enemies.”
Quamvis sit magna exspectatio, eam vinces. “quamvis sit magna exspectatio; Although the expectation is great, you will surpass (lit. conquer) it.”
Cum te semper amaverim, hodie meliori amore amo. “cum te semper amaverim; Although I have always loved you, today I love you today with a greater love.”
Licet meliora carmina femina scribat, tamen ad ludos vir delectus est. “Licet meliora carmina femina scribat; Although the woman writes better poetry, a man was chosen for the games.”